Aikace-aikacen Rubber a Mota

Roba na musamman ya maye gurbin samfuran roba na yau da kullun a fagage da yawa, musamman a cikin masana'antar kera motoci, tare da kyakkyawan aiki na musamman.Dangane da ƙayyadaddun buƙatun sassa daban-daban na roba na motoci, ya kamata a zaɓi kayan roba na musamman daban-daban daidai da haka.

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Hannun robar daban-daban masu matsa lamba don motoci suna ɗaukar roba na musamman a hankali don biyan buƙatun aiki mafi girma

Akwai sassa na roba da yawa da ake amfani da su a cikin motoci kuma suna taka rawa daban-daban a tsarin mota.Alal misali, ana amfani da tef don watsa motsi, ana amfani da hatimi don tallafawa radial ko sassan motsi, ana amfani da gaskets da O-rings don rufe mai ko man fetur, ana amfani da hoses na roba don jigilar ruwa ko gas, kuma ana amfani da diaphragms don sarrafawa. ruwaye ko gas.Abubuwan da ake buƙata don nau'in da aikin roba da aka yi amfani da su sun bambanta saboda amfani daban-daban.Za a zaɓi kayan bisa ga juriya na harshen wuta, juriya na man fetur, juriya na zafi, ƙananan zafin jiki da kuma damar rufewa.Wani lokaci, ana iya zaɓar kayan daban-daban don na'urar iri ɗaya, galibi ya danganta da yanayin zafin aikace-aikacen, nau'ikan man fetur da mai da ƙirar ƙirar abin hawa.

Injin mota
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Belt na lokaci

Ana amfani da bel ɗin lokaci don fitar da kyamarar crankshaft don yin aiki tare.Idan aka kwatanta da sarkar karfe, bel ɗin aiki tare zai iya rage yawan hayaniyar da ke tsakanin bel da sprocket yadda ya kamata, baya buƙatar lubrication, kuma yana da halaye na nauyi.A lokaci guda kuma, saboda sassauƙarsa, ana iya amfani da shi don tukin axis.A Japan, fiye da kashi 70% na motoci suna amfani da bel ɗin aiki tare, yayin da a Turai, fiye da 80% na amfani da bel ɗin aiki tare.

A baya can, roba synchronous bel aka yafi rufe da neoprene (CR).Koyaya, roba butadiene mai hydrogenated (HNBR) yana da mafi kyawun aiki, don haka an yi amfani da shi sosai a cikin bel ɗin aiki tare.Cikakken aikin HNBR ya fi na CR, kuma yana da barga hadaddun modulus, kyakkyawan aiki mai ƙarancin zafi, juriya mai zafi da juriya na lemar sararin samaniya, ingantaccen juriya mai sassauci da kyakkyawan juriya mai a cikin kewayon zafin jiki mai faɗi.

A cikin gwajin aikin tef, matakin juriya na zafi na HNBR yana da 40 ° C sama da na CR da ke rufe roba ƙarƙashin lokaci guda.A lokaci guda, rayuwar sabis na HNBR shine sau biyu na CR, kuma ƙarfinsa ya wuce 100000 km.

Seals da gaskets

Ana amfani da tsarin rufewa galibi don hana zubar ruwa ko wasu kayan.Wani lokaci ana amfani da ƙarfe, filastik ko masana'anta don yin hatimi, amma galibi ana amfani da roba.Lokacin da ake amfani da jerin man mai don injuna da tsarin watsawa, kayan rufewa gabaɗaya sune butadiene rubber (NBR), acrylate rubber (ACM), rubber silicone (VMQ) ko fluororubber (FPM).

Man injin yana buƙatar rayuwa mai tsawo, ƙarancin danko (ceton mai), lubrication mai santsi a ƙarƙashin babban zafin jiki, da sauransu. Saboda haka, man injin yawanci yana ƙunshi nau'ikan ƙari.NBR za ta lalace sosai a cikin mahalli na wakili mai tsarkakewa, wakili na rigakafin tsufa da wakili na rigakafi, yayin da HNBR, FPM da ACM zasu iya kula da kyakkyawan aikin ƙarfi bayan an nutsar da su a cikin man da ke ɗauke da ƙari a babban zafin jiki na dogon lokaci.Ko da yake ƙarfin tensile na ACM yana da ƙasa, yana iya kiyaye aiki mai ƙarfi a cikin duk abubuwan da ake ƙarawa banda alkyl phosphate da gubar naphthenate.Abubuwan da ke cikin jiki na FPM ba su da girma, amma yana da kyakkyawan juriya na zafi da juriya mai.Ƙarfin ƙarfi na HNBR shine mafi girma a cikin waɗannan rubbers, kuma juriya ga abubuwan ƙari daban-daban kuma shine mafi kyau.Zinc dithiophosphate kawai yana da ɗan tasiri akansa.

Tun da dadewa masana'antar kera motoci ke amfani da NBR da roba na kwalabe don kera gaskets na injuna, amma a yanzu galibi suna amfani da ACM da VMQ don biyan buƙatun juriya na zafi, iyawar rufewa da matsi.A karkashin yanayi na al'ada, VMQ ya fi ACM kyau a cikin ƙananan zafin jiki da juriya na zafi, amma VMQ zai yi laushi sosai bayan an jika shi a cikin man inji na dogon lokaci.Sabanin haka, FPM da ACM ba su da lalacewa.

Oil radiator tiyo da bututu isar da iska

Bututun roba na lubricating mai radiyo da kuma bututun roba na radiyo mai galibi sun hada da roba na ciki NBR da roba na waje CR.Don inganta juriya na zafi, an yi amfani da chlorinated ether rubber (ECO) da chlorinated polyethylene (CM), kuma yanzu ana amfani da ACM da AEM.Bututun isar da iskar gas da bututun sha dole ne su sami sassauci mai kyau, juriya na yanayi, shawar girgiza, juriyar rushewar injin da juriyar mai.An zaɓi nau'ikan elastomers (irin su CR, NBR / PVC, EPDM, ECO, CM, ACM) da elastomer na thermoplastic (kamar haɗakar polyester, polypropylene da EPDM) don wannan dalili, dangane da buƙatun ƙira daban-daban don motoci daban-daban.

Fuel tsarin da na'ura mai aiki da karfin ruwa tsarin

Rubber tiyo don tsarin mai

Tsarin man fetur gabaɗaya ya ƙunshi tankin mai, tacewa, famfo da bututu mai haɗawa.Ana iya yin bututun isar da man fetur da karfe, thermoplastic (yawanci polyamine) ko roba mai ƙarfi.

1) Tushen mai

A halin yanzu akwai nau'ikan tsarin samar da mai guda biyu: carburetor da famfon allurar mai.NBR ko NBR/PVC (PB) koyaushe ana amfani dashi azaman manne ciki da CR azaman manne na waje don bututun roba da ake amfani dashi a cikin tsarin carburetor.Lamarin bai canza ba har sai da aka yi amfani da man fetur mai yawan abubuwan kamshi.Gasoline tare da babban abun ciki na kayan ƙanshi zai haifar da fashewar NBR na ciki, wanda za'a iya warware shi ta amfani da NBR ruwa a matsayin filastik ba tare da cirewa ba.

Yayin da zafin jiki na dakin injin ya tashi, manne na waje na bututun mai ya canza daga CR zuwa chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) ko trimer na epichlorohydrin ethylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether (GECO), da juriya na ozone da juriya mai zafi na GECO na iya zama inganta ta hanyar ƙara abun ciki na allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) a cikin GECO.Yanzu ana amfani da GECO a matsayin robar waje na bututun man fetur.Idan aka kwatanta da CR da CSM, har yanzu yana da kyakkyawan juriya mai ƙarfi na ozone bayan an fitar da shi da man gwaji.

A cikin tsarin allurar mai, akwai nau'ikan hoores biyu da hoores: matsin lambar roba a tsakanin famfo mai mai, da kuma tanki mai ƙarancin ƙasa.Roba na ciki na babban tiyo na roba yana ɗaukar FPM, saboda yana da ƙarancin iskar gas, ingantaccen juriyar iskar iskar shaka da kyakkyawan juriya mai zafi.FPM ko HNBR za a yi amfani da shi don rufin ciki na robar mara ƙarfi.Idan aka kwatanta da FPM, HNBR yana da ƙarancin ƙarancin mai, amma farashinsa yayi ƙasa.Idan aka kwatanta da NBR, HNBR yana da ƙarfin juriya mafi girma da ingantattun kaddarorin jiki bayan jiƙa a cikin man fetur mai oxidized.

2) bututun roba mai fidda mai

Tushen filler mai haɗa hular filler da tankin mai koyaushe ana yin shi da PB.Kwanan nan, FPM trimer roba na ciki da kuma GECO na waje roba allura da aka ɓullo da don kara rage da man fetur permeability.Wannan yana da mahimmanci a cikin mahallin ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodi masu ƙarfi.

3) Ruwan roba mara ƙarfi

Ana yin bututun roba mai canzawa da kayan da aka yi da bututun roba da ake amfani da shi don tsarin mai na carburetor, wato NBR gabaɗaya ana amfani da shi azaman roba na ciki da CR azaman roba na waje.

4) Control roba tube (haɗin injin sarrafa bawul da tsotsa da yawa)

Ana amfani da nau'ikan kayan roba guda uku don bututun sarrafawa, dangane da yanayin zafin amfani.Tare da karuwar zafin aiki, kayan yana canzawa daga NBR/CR zuwa GECO har zuwa ACM.An samar da sabon nau'in fili na ACM, wanda ke da kyawawan kaddarorin jiki.

Hatimi da diaphragms don tsarin mai

The man famfo diaphragm ne na hali famfo famfo tsarin a cikin carburetor tsarin.Don yin tsayayya da tasirin thermal na injin, diaphragm dole ne ba kawai yana da dorewa mai kyau a cikin man fetur ba, har ma yana da juriya mai zafi.Abubuwan da aka yi amfani da su don zama NBR da PB an canza su zuwa HNBR da FPM, saboda ana buƙatar gas mai jure iskar oxygen.Don hatimi, NBR, PB, HNBR da FPM ana iya amfani da su don masu ɗaukar girgiza, insulators da hatimin mai.Kayan da aka yi amfani da shi ya dogara da takamaiman zafin jiki na amfani.

Kayayyakin roba don tsarin tuƙi na hydraulic

Tsarin tuƙi na hydraulic yana da nau'ikan bututun roba iri biyu: babban bututun roba mai ƙarfi tsakanin famfo mai da akwatin gear;Ƙarƙashin bututun roba tsakanin akwatin gear da tankin mai.A da, ana amfani da NBR da CR azaman Layer na ciki da na waje na hoses biyu na roba bi da bi.Yanzu ana amfani da ACM ko CSM don rufin ciki na ƙananan igiyoyin roba don inganta ƙarfin zafi.Sabuwar bututun roba mai matsa lamba wanda ya ƙunshi HNBR na ciki da roba na CSM na waje yana da mafi kyawun juriyar zafi fiye da na roba na baya.

Kayayyakin roba don tsarin kwandishan

Lokacin da refrigerant CFC12, roba na ciki na roba bututu ne NBR da na waje roba ne CR.Yanzu man firji da mai mai ya canza, yana buƙatar amfani da kayan aiki mafi kyau, kuma bututun roba ya canza daga yadudduka biyu zuwa uku.Layi na ciki yana da ƙarfin zafi da ƙarancin ƙarfi, tsaka-tsakin tsakiya yana da ƙarancin ƙarancin ƙarfi, kuma ɓangaren waje yana da ƙarfin zafi da juriya na yanayi.Abubuwan robar da ake amfani da su a halin yanzu suna da nau'ikan robar roba guda uku, wato, PA da EPDM blends, IIR da EPDM ko gyare-gyaren PA blends, IIR da chlorinated IIR (CIIR).

Rubber kayan amfani da kwandishan kwampreso like bukatar da high ƙarfi juriya, duka CFC-12 da HFC-134a.Babu wani abu na roba daya da zai iya jure firji guda biyu a lokaci guda, amma kayan hadewa na iya biyan wannan bukata.Ana kiran wannan abu RBR (abu mai juriya ga refrigerate biyu).

Masana'antar kera motoci sun gabatar da buƙatu masu girma da girma don sassa daban-daban.Rubber na musamman tare da juriya na zafi, tsawon rayuwar sabis, ƙarancin ƙarfi da juriya mai ƙarfi za a yi amfani da su sosai a cikin masana'antar mota.


Lokacin aikawa: Nuwamba-09-2022